Welcome

Follow along as I post results and interpretations of various DNA tests conducted on my Palestinian Christian family members. For a condensed version, read the Summary page for key findings. For more in-depth review, the other pages & blog posts will offer detailed and specific information. Use the labels to find posts relating to the Pages above or family surnames. Feel free to contact me at holylanddna@gmail.com. 

SUMMARY

Key Findings:

1- The Christians of Palestine all appear to be related!

Now, this may be an over exaggeration, but the many DNA matches between people of Ramallah, Bethlehem, Beit Sahour, Beit Jala, Beersheeba, Taybeh, Bizreit, Jerusalem and other Christian towns point towards it.  This even extends (to a lesser degree) to Lebanon and Syria. The older generation has told us that there was no intermarriage outside of specific clans, let alone their village.  The only way for this to make sense, is to go back much further in time.  The history of Beit Sahour and Ramallah tells of us time spent living in Jordan.  My current theory is that many Christians from Palestine fled, most likely due to persecution, and took refuge east of the Jordan River.  We are told they were in Wadi Musa.  They were likely a small group of people who intermarried heavily at this time (around the 1600s) and then when they were able to return to their homeland, they settled different areas.  The shared genes have remained with them, even though intermarriage has not taken place for hundreds of years.

I have noticed that the circle of proximity goes like this: the people from Beit Sahour appear very closely related, sharing as much DNA as first-third cousins. Moving out to Beit Jala & Bethlehem, these appear as 2nd-4th cousins. People from Ramallah are similar about 2nd-4th cousins.  Other towns like Beersheeba, Jerusalem, Bizreit, Nazareth are slightly more distantly related. Then moving out from there you have other countries in the Levant such as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan.  Many Christians from these areas are also related to Palestinian Christians.  Some of them appear more closely related, but most share substantially less DNA, showing it is an old match from long ago. Very small (meaning very old) matches appear with certain people in places like Turkey, Armenia, Egypt, Georgia, Cyprus, Russia, Eastern Europe, and even England and the US!

Family notes: Our closest DNA matches have the following names- Rishmawy, Salomon, Khoury, Handal, Khalil, Hanna, Burhum, Sfeir, Nasralla, Larach, Kattan, Zablah, Babish, Dabdoub, Bendeck, Jasser, Nasser, Zoughbi, Eadeh, Abourezk, Harb, Yacoub, Monsour, Shaheen among MANY others!



2- Palestinian Christians Have the Same Admixture

The types of admixture are labelled differently at different companies.  These are supposed to reflect the past 500 years or so.  At AncestryDNA it's a combination of: Middle East, Caucasus, Italy/Greece, and European Jewish.  These 4 components make up the modern day Palestinian.  The %s might be off a little person to person, but generally they are very close. Trace elements in the DNA are Northern European genes and to a smaller degree North/East African.

At 23andme the admixture shows: primarily Middle East (the Caucasus and northern Levant) which is around 80-90%.  Smaller amounts of North African (which includes Arab), Italian, and Ashkenazi.

At Family Finder the components of ancestry are: Eastern Middle East, Asia Minor, Southern Europe, and Jewish Diaspora.

Gedmatch provides tools for deeper admixture analysis from ancient times.  Here the most common results are Samaritan (top result), as well as Cypriot, Druze, Lebanese Christian, and other types of Middle Eastern Jews.  Also, Northern European genes show up at about 3-5% at Gedmatch.

There is no significant difference in admixture among the Palestinian Christians.  I have not found certain surnames or tribes having more of this or that admixture.

Also, because we know our ancestors only married within their small group for the past few hundred years, I believe the high amount of Italian that is shown is more ancient Roman and Greek admixture than anything in modern times.

I will go into more depth about this topic with blog posts labelled 'admixture'.  There is so much to write on this topic and I find it fascinating.

Family notes: Rishmawi (Salomon) & Isaac admixture are very similar.  On one calculator, the dot on the map for Rishmawi results (my grandfather) was "in the middle of the Mediterranean Islands".  My father's results were square in Lebanon, and my grandmother was Northern Syria/Turkey.  This is taking everything together and throwing it on a map.  It shows there is something European to pull it up from Palestine.  My grandfather shows more European ancestry and more Italian than my grandmother does.  My grandmother has East African that my grandfather doe not have and she shows more Ashkenazi Jewish and more native Caucasus.  More details on the admixture page.

3- Different Haplogroups are Present in Palestinian Christians

Whereas we can see that the population is closely related and has the same admixture components, the tests reveal different ancient paternal and maternal lines.  Please see the Haplogroups page for more information. The paternal haplogroups are typically J1e, E1b, and G2.  These 3 haplogroups are what the vast majority of Palestinian men carry.  My grandfather and great-uncle are both J1e, which is considered the Semitic haplogroup.  E1b is considered Canaanite and G2 originated more off to the East/Caucasus.  Even though the two family members we tested were J1e, E1b & G2 were widely represented in matches.  Maternal haplogroups vary broadly.  The Palestinian women carry deep maternal ancestry from many places. 

Family notes:  My grandfather's maternal haplogroup is J2b1, which might be tied to the Phoenicians.  I had a J mtdna "expert" look it over and say it was likely European in origin.  This line from my grandfather comes from his mother's mother's mother.  I can only go as far back as Qumsieh, but it would be her mother's mother and beyond.  My grandmother's maternal haplogroup (Ishaq) is coming from the line of Romman-again her mother's mother's mother and beyond.  This line is H1 and is clearly European in origin.  This means that a European woman in ancient times ended up in Palestine and intermarried with the local population. She could have come through as a slave or a pilgrim, but usually women did not come with the Crusaders.


A note on Y-dna testing- I have continued to upgrade my grandfather and great-uncles tests at Family Tree DNA.  We have learned a lot more since the initial results came back in 2010.  Please see the Y-dna page for more details.  I am very hopeful that more men with Palestinian roots in the Bethlehem area will decide to get y-dna testing.  This will help us learn even more.


Additional Interesting Findings:

  • The legends of Crusaders and citadels and translators and Italians- these do seem to be true to an extent.  The high level of Italian genes that all Palestinian Christians carry represent ancient Roman admixture and possibly Italian from the time of the Crusaders.  I think this oral history is likely true. Some Palestinian names are very Italian sounding.  Other names come from the Crusaders, like Bardawil for the French King, Baldwin.  It's very possible that the Bardawil family is somehow related to the Baldwin line or their French subjects.  The trace amounts of Northern Euro ancestry is substantial enough to show up at about 3-7% in most calculators.  Southern European ancestry is up to 25% in some Palestinian Christians.
  • One of my main goals was to find out if we have Ghassanid ancestors.  Many of the websites about Palestinian towns like Beit Sahour and Ramallah claim that our forefathers were Ghassanids.  This seems to be a popular notion all over the Levant.  First, I asked my grandparents and they had never heard of them.  They believed they had always been from Palestine and had no tribal affiliation with Arabians to the south.  Through Y-dna testing we can see that my grandfather's deep paternal line does not come from Yemen where the Ghassanids originated.  Neither does my great-uncle's deep paternal line.  In fact, the common Arab snp markers are not present in either of them.  They are situated closely to the Cohanim, but not exactly.  I was told their dna looks very native to the land! Overall I was surprised by the low amounts of Arabian dna, about 10-15% or even less.  At this point, I have no evidence of Ghassanid ancestry.  It is possible that it's there, but unless I can prove it, I will not claim that we descend from Ghassanids.
  • Wikipedia says this about our ancestral roots. What the DNA tests have shown is that our core ancestry is really a mix of ancient Israelite & Canaanite.  This makes up bulk of our DNA.  It is why there is a close relation to the Jews, but it's not exact.  There is some relation to the Arabians, but it is not as close.  Our J1e paternal ancestors were the Kurdish Babylonian people (modern day Iraq) who became the Hebrews and Israelites and later the Jews.  Some of them intermarried with the native Canaanites.  There are many examples of this in the Bible.  Once Christianity arose, Jews were the first to convert.  The many Romans living in the land were also early converts, as well as Greeks, Arameans (the Syrians & Lebanese), and other non-Jewish people living in the region.  The early Christian community really defines who we are.  There was a lot of admixture in ancient times- with Crusaders, other Europeans, some East/North Africans, Arabs, etc.  But the vast majority of DNA does not come from these places- it truly does come from the Holy Land through both Jewish and Canaanite (Aramean/Phoenician, etc- the people living in the land that were not Jews) people. Everything I see from the results so far, confirms what many of us have heard through oral history- that we are the descendants of the first Christians and have "always" lived on the land.
  • As far as DNA purity goes- the Middle East is one of the most mixed places on earth. Even though our ancestors lived in relative isolation for hundreds of years, in ancient times the Holy Land was the melting pot.  My Middle Eastern relatives are more admixed than my American relatives on my mother's side!  But, we know this is from ancient times.  It's very interesting to see the different people groups that left their mark on the people of this region.  More on this in the DNA Cousins section.
  • Family Specific Rishmawi Story: One of the most interesting and puzzling findings is the very close results between my grandfather's direct paternal line and my grandmother's brother.  We know my grandparents are likely 3rd cousins through the AbuAitah side, and this is not a surprise.  But, as far as we know the Rishmawis and Isaacs are not related on the paternal side.  The Rishmawi family took their name from Rishmaya, Lebanon when the first Rishmawi left this area as a farmer and settled in Beit Sahour and became part of the Isaac clan.  The full story and more about the clans of Beit Sahour are here.  But, what we have discovered through DNA is that my grandfather and great-uncle share a very unique Y-dna cluster and they are related to a common paternal ancestor approximately 450 years ago! The only other person in the cluster is a Bisharat (read about this family on the link) who was part of the Jarayseh family in Wadi Musa and later settled in Nazareth. The only sensible conclusion I can draw, is that the Rishmawi family in the mid 16th century must have been in the same location as the Isaac ancestor, in order for them to be family.  I believe that location- not Jordan or Lebanon- was Palestine.  They likely had to flee due to persecution and one branch went east of the Jordan and the other went to Lebanon.  They reunited hundreds of years later!  From what I have been reading, immigration to Palestine for people without roots there was not very common in the 1600-1700s.  Why would the Rishmawis move to Palestine if it were not to return to the homeland? People with deep Lebanese roots tended to stay there.  If anyone has any other possible explanation for the relation between Rishmawi & Isaac in this time frame, I would be happy to hear your ideas!
  • The infographic below is for my father.  The maternal line shows my grandmother's mother's mother's line (as far back as we know is Romman, but this goes even further).  You see here it points to Europe for this side.  Please remember this does not mean Miriam Romman was 100% European, it's just her direct maternal ancestor and it was very long ago. You can also view the deep paternal line for my grandfather's father's father, going back to the Rishmawis.  I will have more information about this particular test and the results on Haplogroups pages.




15 comments:

Anibal Delgado Masso said...

Hello, this was very helpful to understand my origins a little more.
My whole maternal line is from Bethlehem. We live in Mexico (1900-1920s immigration, yes).
My maternal lastname is Masso (which is an italian surname), there are also some Iga, Sacca and Ganini in the family tree. I was surprised to find the Handal family mentioned in this post, they are part of the family too.
I really want to know what's up with the italian thing here. Maybe the Crusades for us, who knows.

HolyLandDNA said...

Hi Anibal! The Maso family is from the same clan as Handal (Najajreh - see here: http://www.dabdoub.ps/history/Bethlehem_History.HTM). How do you know Maso is Italian? A lot of our last names sound and look Italian, but are not necessarily so. I have cousins that are Andoni and this name did mean Anthony and could have an Italian root, but they are Palestinian as far back as know. Also some appear Jewish but are not (Isaac, Solomon, Abraham, Joseph, etc.). But, maybe you know something about Maso that I do not, so please fill me in if you do.

Sacca, I believe comes from Al Saqqa (subclan of Najajreh). I am unfamiliar with the other names. Maso is common and I know of some near me as well.

Regardless of the name meanings, Italian is definitely a part of our heritage. It shows up on every DNA test taken by every Christian Palestinian that I have seen. In the tests that go further back in time, it shows even up to 25% in some cases, so this is definitely a good sized component of our DNA. Whether this is ancient Roman from very long ago or from Crusaders or both, we can't tell for sure. I do know that the Christians in Palestine fled to Crusader citadels for protection during the Islamic Conquest and found refuge there. Seems possible that intermarriage happened at that time. There are also legends about Italians that settled in Palestine and married local women. What's interesting is that we do not see Italian y-dna signatures. These tend to be very native Levantine. It appears that the admixture comes from foreign females.

Thanks for taking an interest in your ancestry on this side of your family. Are you considering taking a test? I do believe Maso cousins are listed at all the major testing sites.

Anibal Delgado Masso said...

Thank you,

I wasn't sure, I meant that there is an italian surname "Masso" which is also very common in Catalonia, Spain and since I never found the origin to be arabic (in Google) I supposed that it was italian and that somehow made it to Palestine. But also, I didn't know if it was a derivation of "Mansour".
Thank you, now I learned it is a relatively common surname between arabs in Palestine.

I've also found the Sacca, as Zacca. Once (many years ago) I read in Google they were originally from Aleppo, Syria.

Yes, I would love to take a test. But what do you mean they are listed in the major testing sites?, that I should read their results instead of taking the test? I didn't understand XD

Thank you

HolyLandDNA said...

Anibal- It's very hard to track down surnames in the Middle East because they are constantly changing. Surnames were not used until relatively recently and then often change to reflect first names of the fathers, etc. This is why we have so many with Abraham, Joseph, Michael, etc. You many never know the answer as to where Masso came from or why, but the DNA tells the story.

I was referring to this page: http://www.holylanddna.com/p/paternal-haplogroups.html, where I have some info about your last name. This does not mean you shouldn't take a test. You definitely should! And then let me know if you end up with the same haplogroup as the other Massos. This will help confirm that group for your surname. I recommend 23andme to get a broad scope of your overall ancestry. Keep me updated!

Anonymous said...

Curious to see some of those Gedmatch results!

HolyLandDNA said...

ben-canaan- Some gedmatch results have been posted here: http://www.holylanddna.com/search/label/Gedmatch. Of course there are so many different calculators, that I haven't posted all the different outcomes. If there is a particular calculator you are interested in seeing results for, let me know and I can share. Also, McDonald's Biogeographical analysis was very interesting and I can share if you are interested.

Anonymous said...

Thanks — Eurogenes K13 and Gedrosia Neolithic K13 would both be great!

HolyLandDNA said...

Ben-canaan- Here you go! Please tell me what you make of the results compared with what you have seen. I'd be interested in your feedback.

Grandfather:

Eurogenes K13 4-Ancestors Oracle

K13 Oracle ref data revised 21 Nov 2013

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 42.99
2 West_Asian 18.57
3 West_Med 16.88
4 Red_Sea 13.37
5 North_Atlantic 2.64
6 Baltic 2.45
7 Northeast_African 2.45


Finished reading population data. 204 populations found.
13 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Samaritan @ 3.630486
2 Lebanese_Christian @ 6.025551
3 Cyprian @ 7.614421
4 Lebanese_Muslim @ 7.697124
5 Palestinian @ 8.146937
6 Syrian @ 8.213076
7 Jordanian @ 8.540588
8 Lebanese_Druze @ 10.398281
9 Tunisian_Jewish @ 12.604734
10 Libyan_Jewish @ 12.917951
11 Bedouin @ 13.012912
12 Kurdish_Jewish @ 14.855035
13 Iranian_Jewish @ 15.659941
14 Sephardic_Jewish @ 16.385944
15 Algerian_Jewish @ 16.621767
16 Assyrian @ 17.052612
17 Italian_Jewish @ 17.508631
18 Egyptian @ 17.759172
19 Ashkenazi @ 20.494036
20 Georgian_Jewish @ 20.810757

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Cyprian +50% Palestinian @ 3.462224


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Cyprian +25% Palestinian +25% Samaritan @ 2.886301


Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Bedouin + Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan @ 2.312209
2 Cyprian + Jordanian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.330256
3 Bedouin + Cyprian + Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian @ 2.382550
4 Bedouin + Cyprian + Cyprian + Samaritan @ 2.437082
5 Cyprian + Palestinian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.458402
6 Bedouin + Cyprian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.466759
7 Bedouin + Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian @ 2.548823
8 Cyprian + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.593154
9 Cyprian + Jordanian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan @ 2.755582
10 Cyprian + Samaritan + Samaritan + Syrian @ 2.762797
11 Cyprian + Cyprian + Palestinian + Samaritan @ 2.886301
12 Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Palestinian + Samaritan @ 2.895746
13 Cyprian + Cyprian + Cyprian + Yemenite_Jewish @ 2.904305
14 Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.978675
15 Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan + Syrian @ 3.085344
16 Cyprian + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 3.114107
17 Cyprian + Cyprian + Jordanian + Samaritan @ 3.145377
18 Cyprian + Cyprian + Cyprian + Saudi @ 3.158660
19 Bedouin + Cyprian + Lebanese_Druze + Samaritan @ 3.169491
20 Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 3.183945

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Samaritan 3.19
2 Lebanese_Christian 5.35
3 Lebanese_Muslim 6.84
4 Cyprian 7.07
5 Syrian 7.32
6 Palestinian 7.55
7 Jordanian 8.26
8 Lebanese_Druze 9.32
9 Tunisian_Jewish 11.04
10 Libyan_Jewish 11.39
11 Bedouin 12.17
12 Kurdish_Jewish 13.05
13 Iranian_Jewish 13.83
14 Sephardic_Jewish 14.32
15 Algerian_Jewish 14.67
16 Assyrian 14.99
17 Italian_Jewish 15.39
18 Egyptian 17.25
19 Ashkenazi 17.99
20 Georgian_Jewish 18.15

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 94.1% Samaritan + 5.9% Moldavian @ 1.42
2 95% Samaritan + 5% Ukrainian_Lviv @ 1.46
3 94.5% Samaritan + 5.5% Croatian @ 1.47
4 92.4% Samaritan + 7.6% Bulgarian @ 1.48
5 95.2% Samaritan + 4.8% Ukrainian @ 1.49
6 95.5% Samaritan + 4.5% Erzya @ 1.5
7 95.6% Samaritan + 4.4% Kargopol_Russian @ 1.51
8 92.9% Samaritan + 7.1% Romanian @ 1.52
9 95.3% Samaritan + 4.7% Ukrainian_Belgorod @ 1.52
10 95.4% Samaritan + 4.6% Polish @ 1.52
11 95.2% Samaritan + 4.8% South_Polish @ 1.54
12 95.3% Samaritan + 4.7% Southwest_Russian @ 1.54
13 95.5% Samaritan + 4.5% Russian_Smolensk @ 1.54
14 93.6% Samaritan + 6.4% Serbian @ 1.56
15 95.6% Samaritan + 4.4% Estonian_Polish @ 1.57
16 95.9% Samaritan + 4.1% Lithuanian @ 1.57
17 95.9% Samaritan + 4.1% Estonian @ 1.58
18 94.9% Samaritan + 5.1% Tatar @ 1.6
19 95.7% Samaritan + 4.3% Belorussian @ 1.6
20 94.6% Samaritan + 5.4% Hungarian @ 1.62

HolyLandDNA said...

Grandmother's results:

K13 Oracle ref data revised 21 Nov 2013

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 43.54
2 West_Asian 21.51
3 West_Med 16.25
4 Red_Sea 13.15
5 North_Atlantic 1.94
6 Northeast_African 1.81


Finished reading population data. 204 populations found.
13 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Samaritan @ 3.923975
2 Lebanese_Christian @ 4.149116
3 Lebanese_Muslim @ 6.508705
4 Syrian @ 7.632127
5 Cyprian @ 8.401754
6 Palestinian @ 8.955419
7 Jordanian @ 9.078335
8 Lebanese_Druze @ 9.304201
9 Kurdish_Jewish @ 11.807171
10 Iranian_Jewish @ 12.991894
11 Assyrian @ 14.416495
12 Bedouin @ 14.420472
13 Tunisian_Jewish @ 14.950752
14 Libyan_Jewish @ 15.399226
15 Georgian_Jewish @ 18.412178
16 Sephardic_Jewish @ 18.418240
17 Algerian_Jewish @ 19.243896
18 Italian_Jewish @ 19.841011
19 Egyptian @ 19.903536
20 Turkish @ 21.281776

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Lebanese_Muslim +50% Samaritan @ 2.811082


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Lebanese_Christian +25% Samaritan +25% Syrian @ 2.270890


Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Assyrian + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.201777
2 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.240234
3 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Syrian @ 2.270890
4 Kurdish_Jewish + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.305190
5 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan @ 2.339417
6 Cyprian + Kurdish_Jewish + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.431629
7 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Syrian @ 2.441151
8 Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Samaritan + Syrian @ 2.474117
9 Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.530045
10 Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Syrian @ 2.574609
11 Georgian_Jewish + Samaritan + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.612108
12 Cyprian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Syrian @ 2.680173
13 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan @ 2.718184
14 Cyprian + Jordanian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian @ 2.729534
15 Kurdish_Jewish + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.751571
16 Assyrian + Lebanese_Christian + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.757695
17 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim @ 2.774981
18 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim + Syrian @ 2.785658
19 Lebanese_Christian + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Syrian @ 2.789914
20 Lebanese_Muslim + Lebanese_Muslim + Samaritan + Samaritan @ 2.811082

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Samaritan 3.45
2 Lebanese_Christian 3.66
3 Lebanese_Muslim 5.78
4 Syrian 6.82
5 Cyprian 7.65
6 Palestinian 8.27
7 Lebanese_Druze 8.33
8 Jordanian 8.77
9 Kurdish_Jewish 10.4
10 Iranian_Jewish 11.53
11 Assyrian 12.71
12 Tunisian_Jewish 13.05
13 Bedouin 13.38
14 Libyan_Jewish 13.54
15 Sephardic_Jewish 16.04
16 Georgian_Jewish 16.07
17 Algerian_Jewish 16.89
18 Italian_Jewish 17.35
19 Turkish 18.72
20 Armenian 18.84

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 91.8% Samaritan + 8.2% Abhkasian @ 1.29
2 91.5% Samaritan + 8.5% Georgian @ 1.33
3 85.6% Samaritan + 14.4% Armenian @ 1.39
4 92.5% Samaritan + 7.5% Ossetian @ 1.59
5 84% Samaritan + 16% Georgian_Jewish @ 1.63
6 92.9% Samaritan + 7.1% North_Ossetian @ 1.77
7 81% Samaritan + 19% Assyrian @ 1.79
8 92.6% Samaritan + 7.4% Balkar @ 1.82
9 92.5% Samaritan + 7.5% Adygei @ 1.83
10 89.5% Samaritan + 10.5% Kurdish @ 1.94
11 93.1% Samaritan + 6.9% Kabardin @ 1.97
12 93.5% Samaritan + 6.5% Chechen @ 2.04
13 87% Samaritan + 13% Turkish @ 2.04
14 92.3% Samaritan + 7.7% Kumyk @ 2.04
15 78.6% Samaritan + 21.4% Kurdish_Jewish @ 2.04
16 89% Samaritan + 11% Azeri @ 2.09
17 93.7% Samaritan + 6.3% Lezgin @ 2.12
18 68.7% Lebanese_Christian + 31.3% Syrian @ 2.17
19 66.7% Samaritan + 33.3% Lebanese_Muslim @ 2.18
20 94.2% Samaritan + 5.8% Tabassaran @ 2.2

HolyLandDNA said...

Grandfather Gedrosia K13 oracle:

gedrosia K13 Oracle

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 NATUFIAN 26.22
2 CHG_EEF 23.62
3 IRAN_NEOLITHIC 23.49
4 ANATOLIA_NEOLITHIC 20.73
5 SUB_SAHARAN 2.03
6 SIBERIAN 1.34
7 SHG_WHG 1.33


Finished reading population data. 145 populations found.
13 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Lebanese @ 5.424897
2 Cypriot @ 6.391862
3 Druze @ 8.612187
4 Jew_Tunisian @ 8.919745
5 Jordanian @ 9.172264
6 Jew_Moroccan @ 9.600558
7 Jew_Libyan @ 9.754098
8 Syrian @ 10.313188
9 Jew_iraqi @ 11.212378
10 Palestinian @ 11.240843
11 Jew_Iranian @ 14.069860
12 Turkish_Adana @ 14.311297
13 BedouinA @ 14.834748
14 Turkish_Kayseri @ 14.866838
15 Assyrian @ 15.256157
16 Armenian @ 16.620697
17 Turkish_Trabzon @ 17.176632
18 Jew_Ashkenazi @ 18.087036
19 Egyptian @ 18.841518
20 Turkish @ 18.877142

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Jew_iraqi +50% Jew_Libyan @ 3.322167


Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Jew_Iranian +25% Jew_Yemenite +25% Sardinian @ 2.779992


Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Jew_Iranian + Jew_iraqi + Jew_Yemenite + Sardinian @ 2.611663
2 Assyrian + Jew_iraqi + Jew_Yemenite + Sardinian @ 2.731650
3 Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Yemenite + Sardinian @ 2.779992
4 Jew_iraqi + Jew_iraqi + Jew_Yemenite + Sardinian @ 2.893758
5 Assyrian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Yemenite + Sardinian @ 2.958333
6 Abkhasian + Georgian + Jew_Libyan + Levant_N @ 2.967929
7 Jew_Iranian + Jew_iraqi + Sardinian + Saudi @ 2.983225
8 Assyrian + Jew_iraqi + Sardinian + Saudi @ 2.998456
9 Abkhasian + Georgian + Jew_Tunisian + Levant_N @ 3.011798
10 Georgian + Georgian + Jew_Libyan + Levant_N @ 3.033319
11 Abkhasian + Abkhasian + Jew_Libyan + Levant_N @ 3.079995
12 Georgian + Georgian + Jew_Tunisian + Levant_N @ 3.089324
13 Georgian + Georgian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_N @ 3.130241
14 Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Sardinian + Saudi @ 3.151308
15 Abkhasian + Abkhasian + Jew_Tunisian + Levant_N @ 3.157576
16 Abkhasian + Armenian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_N @ 3.159664
17 Italian_South + Lebanese + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 3.165882
18 Cypriot + Jew_iraqi + Jew_Libyan + Lebanese @ 3.210752
19 Abkhasian + Georgian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_N @ 3.216575
20 Georgian + Lebanese + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 3.216734

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Lebanese 5.22
2 Cypriot 6.05
3 Druze 8.13
4 Jew_Tunisian 8.34
5 Jordanian 8.94
6 Jew_Moroccan 9.15
7 Jew_Libyan 9.21
8 Syrian 9.86
9 Jew_iraqi 10.56
10 Palestinian 10.74
11 Jew_Iranian 13.22
12 Turkish_Adana 13.49
13 Turkish_Kayseri 14.08
14 Assyrian 14.34
15 BedouinA 14.47
16 Armenian 15.61
17 Turkish_Trabzon 16.15
18 Jew_Ashkenazi 16.98
19 Turkish 17.92
20 Sicilian 18.43

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 86.8% Jew_Tunisian + 13.2% Iran_ChL @ 2.16
2 90.2% Druze + 9.8% Europe_EN @ 2.66
3 85.7% Druze + 14.3% Stuttgart @ 2.7
4 91.1% Jew_Tunisian + 8.9% Iran_LN @ 2.72
5 91.1% Jew_Tunisian + 8.9% Iran_N @ 2.72
6 91.2% Druze + 8.8% Anatolia_N @ 2.92
7 66.2% Cypriot + 33.8% Palestinian @ 2.98
8 53.8% Jew_Libyan + 46.2% Jew_iraqi @ 3.08
9 56.6% Jew_Tunisian + 43.4% Jew_iraqi @ 3.13
10 81.8% Cypriot + 18.2% Yemeni @ 3.16
11 81.4% Cypriot + 18.6% Jew_Yemenite @ 3.2
12 86% Jew_Libyan + 14% Iran_ChL @ 3.22
13 83.5% Jew_Tunisian + 16.5% Iran_recent @ 3.26
14 89.3% Druze + 10.7% Europe_MNChL @ 3.3
15 73.6% Cypriot + 26.4% BedouinA @ 3.33
16 87.2% Cypriot + 12.8% Levant_BA @ 3.36
17 92% Lebanese + 8% Stuttgart @ 3.36
18 90.4% Jew_Libyan + 9.6% Iran_LN @ 3.45
19 90.4% Jew_Libyan + 9.6% Iran_N @ 3.45
20 62% Jew_Libyan + 38% Assyrian @ 3.46

HolyLandDNA said...

Grandmother Gedrosia results:

Population Percent
1 NATUFIAN 27.75
2 IRAN_NEOLITHIC 26.28
3 CHG_EEF 19.85
4 ANATOLIA_NEOLITHIC 19.85
5 SHG_WHG 2.21
6 ANCESTRAL_INDIAN 1.71

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Lebanese @ 7.058866
2 Druze @ 8.531130
3 Jew_iraqi @ 9.061540
4 Jordanian @ 9.501299
5 Syrian @ 10.006153
6 Palestinian @ 10.414963
7 Cypriot @ 10.596913
8 Jew_Iranian @ 12.451056
9 Jew_Tunisian @ 13.029467
10 Jew_Libyan @ 13.531704
11 Assyrian @ 14.010680
12 Jew_Moroccan @ 14.123405
13 BedouinA @ 14.798462
14 Turkish_Adana @ 16.094954
15 Turkish_Kayseri @ 16.344826
16 Armenian @ 17.214994
17 Turkish_Trabzon @ 18.498762
18 Egyptian @ 19.384968
19 Azeri @ 19.820440
20 Jew_Yemenite @ 21.632385

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Jew_iraqi +50% Jew_Libyan @ 5.765579

Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Cypriot +25% Kurd_C +25% Levant_BA @ 2.951600

Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Druze + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.335611
2 Assyrian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.773450
3 Jew_Iranian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.800606
4 Armenian + Druze + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.805008
5 Druze + Kurd_C + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.824289
6 Iranian_Shirazi + Jew_iraqi + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.837657
7 Georgian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 2.872874
8 Druze + Georgian + Kurd_C + Levant_N @ 2.898214
9 Armenian + Cypriot + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.916427
10 Cypriot + Jew_Iranian + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.929485
11 Iranian_Shirazi + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.939676
12 Cypriot + Jew_iraqi + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.944443
13 Assyrian + Cypriot + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.950391
14 Cypriot + Cypriot + Kurd_C + Levant_BA @ 2.951600
15 Assyrian + Iranian_Shirazi + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.980844
16 Assyrian + Georgian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 3.007769
17 Abkhasian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_iraqi + Levant_N @ 3.009302
18 Armenian + Armenian + Iranian_Shirazi + Levant_N @ 3.009822
19 Abkhasian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 3.010818
20 Assyrian + Cypriot + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 3.024243

HolyLandDNA said...

Rest of the above results for Gedrosia (grandmother):

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Lebanese @ 7.058866
2 Druze @ 8.531130
3 Jew_iraqi @ 9.061540
4 Jordanian @ 9.501299
5 Syrian @ 10.006153
6 Palestinian @ 10.414963
7 Cypriot @ 10.596913
8 Jew_Iranian @ 12.451056
9 Jew_Tunisian @ 13.029467
10 Jew_Libyan @ 13.531704
11 Assyrian @ 14.010680
12 Jew_Moroccan @ 14.123405
13 BedouinA @ 14.798462
14 Turkish_Adana @ 16.094954
15 Turkish_Kayseri @ 16.344826
16 Armenian @ 17.214994
17 Turkish_Trabzon @ 18.498762
18 Egyptian @ 19.384968
19 Azeri @ 19.820440
20 Jew_Yemenite @ 21.632385

Using 2 populations approximation:
1 50% Jew_iraqi +50% Jew_Libyan @ 5.765579

Using 3 populations approximation:
1 50% Cypriot +25% Kurd_C +25% Levant_BA @ 2.951600

Using 4 populations approximation:
1 Druze + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.335611
2 Assyrian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.773450
3 Jew_Iranian + Jew_Moroccan + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.800606
4 Armenian + Druze + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.805008
5 Druze + Kurd_C + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.824289
6 Iranian_Shirazi + Jew_iraqi + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.837657
7 Georgian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 2.872874
8 Druze + Georgian + Kurd_C + Levant_N @ 2.898214
9 Armenian + Cypriot + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.916427
10 Cypriot + Jew_Iranian + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.929485
11 Iranian_Shirazi + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.939676
12 Cypriot + Jew_iraqi + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.944443
13 Assyrian + Cypriot + Iranian_Mazandarani + Levant_N @ 2.950391
14 Cypriot + Cypriot + Kurd_C + Levant_BA @ 2.951600
15 Assyrian + Iranian_Shirazi + Levant_N + Turkish_Trabzon @ 2.980844
16 Assyrian + Georgian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 3.007769
17 Abkhasian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_iraqi + Levant_N @ 3.009302
18 Armenian + Armenian + Iranian_Shirazi + Levant_N @ 3.009822
19 Abkhasian + Jew_Iranian + Jew_Iranian + Levant_N @ 3.010818
20 Assyrian + Cypriot + Levant_BA + Turkish_Trabzon @ 3.024243

Anonymous said...

Hello I am Palestinian Christian my father is half Palestinian Christian from his father and half Lebanese Christian from his mother and my mother is totally Palestinian Christian.
- My Father Father from Gaza and my Father Mother from Beirut ( Lebanon Mount. ) and My Mother Father from Gaza My Mother Mother from Jaffa.
- I took many DNA tests recently Family Tree DNA My origins and DNA Land , My Heritage Gencove, 24 Genes and I would like to share and the
FTDNA My Origins results are 51% West Middle East, 26% Asia Minor, 15% Sephardic and 6% Southeast Europe only trace less than 2% of East Middle East.
Gedmatch show Samaritans, Lebanese Christians the neareset poulations then Syrian and Mizrahi Jews and Cyprians
DNA Land results :
Arab/Egyptian : 45% Mediterranean Islanders 34% Central Indoeuropean 19% Sardinian 1%
Gencove near to DNA Land:
Middle Eastern ( Egypt, Palestine , Syria, Saudi Arabia ) : 51%
Eastern Midetarranean ( Greece,Cyprus, Sicily, Malta, Albania , Bulgaria) : 35%
Turkey, Caucasus and Iran : 10%
Southwest European ( Spain, South France , Sardinia) : 2%
Central Asia ( Turkmen, Uzbek ) : 2%
My Heritage :
Middle East: 39.4% Mizrahi Jewish : 18.6 % North Africa : 15.9% West Asia : 14.2% Greek : 8.5% Italian : 3.4%
I took also GPS Origins and I got two paths one from Saudi Arabia to Jordan and other from Russia to Georgia.
24 Genes is very detailed it's a new SpanishDNA company :
Samaritan : 41.15 % Lebanese : 21.55% Syria : 12.55 % Palestine : 10.75% Egypt : 4.45%
Israeli Jewish ( Iberian Sephardim + Mizrahi ) : 4% Cyprus: 3.95 % Italy (South italy & sardinia) : 0.7 % Iraq : 0.45% Greece (Crete & Aegean Islands) : 0.4 % Jordan : 0.05 %
-I got Big Y test for my paternal and it is J1 - BY74 they said it's semitic Canaanite the strange that it resemble Al Azd Ghassanids but no connection with them from 3700 years it's from ancient Seitic Canaanites and even no other Jewish or Samaritan or Arabic have match with.
- I took mtDNA Full sequence and got Haplogroup X without any subclade but most near to X4 like in Asia Minor, Italy and Central Europe and very rare matches HVR 1 Level 4 from Germany 2 from England 1 from Scotland 4 from norway and one on HVR1+HVR2 Level from Saudi Arabia with Syrian Motherline .
And the questions are :
1- Do you think my maternal Lineage West European Crusader I read that some of us Palestinian Christians have Paternal or Maternal Crusader lineage as all of HVR1 Level which expected be from 1300 years from Britain , Germany and Norway or not it could be Greek or Italian or Levantines ?
2- Researchers said that I have recent Italian and Greek Ancestry from 200 to few hundred years could it be crusader or from Italian and Greek Pilgrims ?
3- Researchers Said I have recent Iberian Sephardim and Mizrahi Jewish ancestry does some Palestinian Christian mixed with Sephardim and Mizrahi Jews and which Lineage ?
4- Do yo think any Canaanite Semitic J1 Lineage between Palestinian Christians possibly come from ancient Jews and Hebrews who joined early Christianity or it could be Amorite, Moabite, Edomite , Phoenician ?

HolyLandDNA said...

Thanks so much for sharing your extensive results! They are very similar to ours with heavy Samaritan and the Sephardic on FTDNA. It looks like your y-dna is very native to the Levant and unique that is appears Canaanite and not Israelite or Arab. I have seen X mtdna in Palestinians. It is uncommon, but not rare.

1- It's hard to say. A lot of the maternal lines do come from other places than the Levant. My grandmother's mtdna has a British root as well - all of her matches are from the UK or US. So, very likely Crusader or some kind of back migration on this line. Same is possible for you, but X from what I understand also could be native to the Levant.

2- Which researchers said this? I think a lot of our Italian and Greek ancestry is recycled. Meaning it has been there from ancient times when Greeks & Romans heavily inhabited the Holy Land. And it has recycled down over time. It also could be Crusader or even more recent pilgrims from Europe who settled in the area.

3- The Jewish connection is strong but it could go back to ancient times when we all shared common ancestors. Or you could have hidden Jews more recently in your family tree. There is such a close connection with the genes, think of us as brothers to the Jews, that it is hard to say. We have Jewish matches on our lists as well - and these are only supposed to go back 500 years. But we have matches to Ashkenazis in Russia, so how is this possible? I would guess though that Mizrahi ancestry makes the most sense.

4- Excellent question and I wish I knew! These people groups all share a common ancestor. There are very close connections between Jews and Arabs and the native people of the Levant. I believe we have all of these ancestries within the Palestinian population. I have read however that Semitic does not include the Phoenicians. They are mostly J2. So your direct paternal line is likely Semitic with J1 and I'm guessing closer to the Israelites. But your overall ancestry would include all of the groups you mentioned. And the early Christian converts from Greek/Roman populations as well to varying degrees in the DNA.

Thanks so much for sharing...your results are fascinating!

Raymond Puentes said...

Hi, I found this article you wrote very interesting, as my maternal grandfather is from Zahlé, Lebanon, and he got Middle East, Caucasus, Italy/Greece, and European Jewish on his AncestryDNA test. I know of several last names in my family tree on that side. Do you see any connection between these last names, and Palestinian Christians?

Ghassan
Shaady (This one is Anglicized as Shaddy, but the original pronunciation was shuh-ha-dee)
Abboud
Nasralla / Nasrallah

There is also my maternal grandmother, who had a Lebanese grandfather from Ghazir with the last name Gobaira. Any connection there?