Paternal Ancient Ancestry
Y-DNA is used extensively by scientists to study paternal ancestry. Unlike all other types of DNA, the Y-DNA is passed down strictly from father to son from generation to generation. By testing the Y-DNA, scientists are able to view the genetic markers of an individual's paternal ancestors from ancient times.
Y-DNA contains two types of ancestral markers, namely STR markers and SNP markers. While STRs are useful for tracing recent ancestry (past few hundred years), SNPs are used to study ancient human history (thousands of years ago). SNPs are small changes (mutations) which occur naturally and randomly in the DNA every few thousand years. Once a SNP occurs in the Y-DNA of a male individual, it becomes a permanent marker that is passed down from that point forward to all future male descendants. The Y-DNA of every male living today contains a unique collection of SNPs inherited from male predecessors over thousands of years.
All humans living today can be classified into a specific Y-DNA haplogroup in the Y-DNA Tree based on SNP markers found in their Y-DNA.
This page covers Paternal Haplogroup assignments (ancient ancestry), see the Y-DNA page for STR markers that show more recent ancestry.
More Information about paternal haplogroups in general can be found here.
Tests Performed & Basic Results:
- Paternal Haplogroup assignments at 23andme for my father and grandfather (following the Rishmawi ancient ancestor) - J1e
- Deep paternal haplogroup assignment with terminal snp at National Geographic's Geno 2.0 for my father - J1e (P58) with terminal snp of YSC234.
Other DNA Cousin surnames that are also J1e:
Personal Comments: J1e is considered to be the Semitic Haplogroup of Abraham. The men who carry this haplogroup are direct descendants of Abraham through one of his 8 sons. Abraham was originally from Iraq and brought his genes with him to Palestine as the Israelites conquered Canaan. Also, his other descendants were in the Arabian Peninsula during ancient times. More than half of our Palestinian Christian cousins carry J1e, but E1b (considered the native Canaanite haplogroup), and G2 (Caucasus) are both present in large numbers of Palestinian Christian men and also J2 (highest in Lebanon). Even though Salomon-Isaac-Rishmawi are all J1e, it's very likely that several of our other family surnames are E1b, G, and J2. Right now every direct line male tested from Beit Sahour is showing J1e. We need more men to test with different last names to see if this trend will continue. Please note the examples shown are for Middle Eastern matches, not those who have a father of a different ethnicity. Look at the list of names below and you will see many you recognize. The descriptions are all similar for the Middle Eastern based haplogroups.
DNA Cousins who are E1b:
Khoury (knowing this name means priest, this shows Khoury can have different ancient roots)
DNA Cousins who are G:
G2a: Yanni, Farah, Masso/Maso, Yunis, Al Nimri, Farouni, Abou-Ata, Kattan
G2a5: Elbournou, Rabbat
G2a5: Elbournou, Rabbat
G1*: Zugbi, Manzur, Daboub, Babish, Giacoman
*Right now the paternal lines from Bethlehem, mostly appear to be G1*
DNA Cousins who are J2: Farha, Kawas, Khawam, Annabi, Sawabini, Monsour, Khoury, Hrimat (many others that are more distant DNA cousins have this haplogroup and are not listed here)
DNA Cousins who are T: Hanhan, Bashara, Haddad, Fakhoury, Sakakeeny
Comments: The above paternal haplogroups are representative of what you would find in Palestinian Christians from most represented to less. There are some other random haplogroups that are occasionally seen, but those are quite rare.
This test gave deep ancestry results for the direct maternal and direct paternal lines of my father. So, looking at the paternal side it would go back on the Rishmawi line (father's father's father's father, etc). This test is more specific for these lines than the general haplogroup given by 23andme. Currently, YSC234 is my father & grandfather's terminal snp. They have tested for several other snps downstream of YSC234 and they are all negative so far.
For those interested in the complete list of snps tested, here they are: